A careful analysis of benefits accrued to target species and habitats, together with a detailed assessment of any unintended effects, are crucial in order to evaluate conservation results against the economic and environmental costs sustained. Such analyses have been carried out extensively during similar operations (e.g. in New Zealand and the U.S.A.), but the Tavolara eradication effort will nevertheless need to be assessed in great detail, in light of its crucial importance at the Mediterranean level. Monitoring efforts will thus target animal species that may be positively or negatively impacted by the eradication of rats: in addition to Yelkouan Shearwaters, the direct target of the intervention, regular censuses will count all individuals of diurnal raptors, Common Raven Corvus corax, Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara, Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis (the latter two species are potentially at risk of direct poisoning),and European Leaf-toed Gecko Euleptes europaea. Several species of marine fish will be monitored before, during, and after the eradication operations, following protocols already established during previous monitoring efforts by the Marine Protected Area.